Saturday, September 21, 2013

Founder of Indian Institutions

September 21, 2013 0
Founder of Arya Samaj

  • Arya Samaj :- Swami Dayanand Saraswati
  • Athmiya Sabha :- Raja Ram Mohan Roy
  • Brahma Samaj :- Raja Ram Mohan Roy
  • Deccan Educational Society :- G. G. Agarkar, M. G. Ranade, V. G. Gibhongar
  • Dharma Sabha :- Radhakanthadev
  • Indian Brahma Samaj :- Keshav Chandra Sen
  • Manavadharma Sabha :- Durgaram Manjaram
  • Prarthana Samaj :- Athmaram Pandurang
  • Pune Sewa Sadan :- Smt. Remabhai Ranade, G. K. Devdhar
  • Ramakrishna Mission :- Swami Vivekananda
  • Sadharan Brahma Samaj :- Shivananda Sashtri, Anand Mohan Bose
  • Servant of India Society :- Gopal Krishna Gokhale
  • Sewa Sadan :- Bahuramji M. Malabari
  • Sewa Samithi :- H. N. Kunsru
  • Social Service League :- N. M. Joshi
  • Thathwabodhini Sabha :- Debendranatha Tagore
  • Theosophical Society :- Madam H. P. Blavadski, Col. H. L. Olkott

Thursday, July 25, 2013

UPSC Civil Services Examination Dates

July 25, 2013 15
Union Public Service Commission has announced new tentative schedule for civil services exams 2018.


Date of notification: - 07.02.2018
Last date for receipt of application: - 06.03.2018 (TUESDAY)
Date of commencement of exam: - 03.06.2018 (SUNDAY)
Duration of exam: - 1 DAYS


Date of commencement of exam: - 01.10.2018 (MONDAY)
Duration of exam: - 5 DAYS

For complete notification Click Here

Thursday, July 4, 2013

Indian Railway Zones and their Headquarters

July 04, 2013 0

  1. Northern Railway -Delhi 
  2. North Eastern Railway - Gorakhpur 
  3. Northeast Frontier Railway - Maligaon(Guwahati) 
  4. Eastern Railway- Kolkata 
  5. South Eastern Railway - Kolkata 
  6. South Central Railway - Secunderabad 
  7. Southern Railway - Chennai 
  8. Central Railway - Mumbai 
  9. Western Railway - Mumbai 
  10. South Western Railway - Hubli 
  11. North Western Railway - jaipur 
  12. West Central Railway - jabalpur 
  13. North Central Railway - Allahabad 
  14. South East Central Railway - Bilaspur 
  15. East Coast Railway - Bhubaneswar 
  16. East Central Railway - Hajipur 
  17. Kolkata Metro - Kolkata

Head of International Organisations

July 04, 2013 1

Heads of Specialized organisations and agencies of the United Nations

(1) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) — José Graziano da Silva
(2) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)— Yukiya Amano
(3) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) — Fang Liu
(4) International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) — Gilbert Houngbo
(5) International Labour Organization (ILO ) — Guy Ryder
(6) International Maritime Organization (IMO) — Kitack Lim
(7) International Monetary Fund (IMF) — Christine Lagarde
(8) International Telecommunication Union (ITU) — Houlin Zhao
(9) United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) — Audrey Azoulay
(10) Universal Postal Union (UPU) — Bishar Abdirahman Hussein
(11) World Bank (IBRD) — Jim Yong Kim
(12) World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) — Francis Gurry
(13) World Meteorological Organization (WMO) — Petteri Taalas (Secretary-General), David Grimes (President)
(14) World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) — Zurab Pololikashvili
(15) United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) — Yuri Fedotov
(16) United Nations Data and Information Organization (UNDIO) — Louis R. Rutinduka

Tuesday, July 2, 2013

Facts About Indian Currency

July 02, 2013 1
  • The first coins were minted (made) around 2500 years ago.
  • Paper money was first used in China over 1000 years ago.
  • The first "rupee” was first introduced by Sher Shah Suri. It was based on a ratio of 40 copper pieces (paisa) per rupee.
  • Udaya K Dharmalingam is the designer of the Indian rupee Symbol, which was adopted by the Government of India in 2010.
  • From 1953, Hindi was displayed prominently on the new notes.
  • The Government of India took over the issue of bank notes in 1861 from the Private and Presidency Banks.
  • The first series of coins with theIndian rupee symbol was launched on 8 July, 2011.
  • The first 1000 Rs Note was introduced in 2000.
  • The first 20 Rs and 5 Rs note was introduced in 2001.
  • Decimalization started in 1957 and the rupee was divided into 100 Naye Paise.
  • Total 15 Languages (Apart from English) are printed in Indian Rupee Note. They are Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Panjabi, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu.
  • In India, the first paper bank note was published by Bank of Hindustan in 1770.
  • The current Mahatma Gandhi series of bank notes stared from 1996 with new series of 10Rs notes.
  • Indian coins are produced in 4 cities: Noida, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Kolkata. The coins produce from each city puts an identification mark under the year of issue. Coins produced in Noida have a dot mark, Mumbai have diamond mark, Hyderabad have star mark and coin produce from Kolkata have nothing beneath the year.
  • Credit cards were first used in the United States in the 1920’s.

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

Eligibility conditions for Civil Services Exam

May 29, 2013 14


(1) For the Indian Administrative Service and the Indian Police Service, a candidate must be a citizen of India. 
(2) For other services, a candidate must be either:— 

  1. a citizen of India, or
  2. a subject of Nepal, or 
  3. a subject of Bhutan, or 
  4. a Tibetan refugee who came over to India before 1st January, 1962 with the intention of permanently settling in India, or 
  5. a person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka, East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Ethiopia and Vietnam with the intention of permanently settling in India. 

Provided that a candidate belonging to categories (b), (c), (d) and (e) shall be a person in whose favour a certificate of eligibility has been issued by the Government of India.
Provided further that candidates belonging to categories (b), (c) and (d) above will not be eligible for appointment to the Indian Foreign Service. 
A candidate in whose case a certificate of eligibility is necessary, may be admitted to the examination but the offer of appointment may be given only after the necessary eligibility certificate has been issued to him/her by the Government of India.

Age Limits

(a) A candidate must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 30 years on 1st August, 2013, i.e. he/she must have been born not earlier than 2nd August, 1983 and not later than 1st August, 1992. 
(b) The upper age limit prescribed above will be relaxable : 

  1. upto a maximum of five years if a candidate belongs to a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe. 
  2. upto a maximum of three years in the case of candidates belonging to Other Backward Classes who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable to such candidates. 
  3. upto a maximum of five years if a candidate had ordinarily been domiciled in the State of Jammu & Kashmir during the period from the 1st January, 1980 to the 31st day of December, 1989. 
  4. upto a maximum of three years in the case of Defence Services personnel disabled in operations during hostilities with any foreign country or in a disturbed area and released as a consequence thereof. 
  5. upto a maximum of five years in the case of ex-servicemen including Commission Officers and ECOs/ SSCOs who have rendered at least five years Military Service as on 1st August, 2013 and have been released (i) on completion of assignment (including those whose assignment is due to be completed within one year from 1st August, 2013) otherwise than by way of dismissal or discharge on account of misconduct or inefficiency, or (ii) on account of physical disability attributable to Military Service, or (iii) on invalidment. (vi) Upto a maximum of five years in the case of ECOs/SSCOs who have completed an initial period of assignment of five years Military Service as on 1st August, 2013 and whose assignment has been extended beyond five years and in whose case the Ministry of Defence issues a certificate that they can apply for civil employment and that they will be released on three months notice on selection from the date of receipt of offer of appointment. 
  6. upto a maximum of 10 years in the case of blind, deaf-mute and orthopaedically handicapped persons.
NOTE I : Candidates belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes and the Other Backward Classes who are also covered under any other clauses of para 3(ii)(b) above, viz. those coming under the category of Ex-servicemen, persons domiciled in the State of J & K, blind, deaf-mute and orthopaedically handicapped etc. will be eligible for grant of cumulative age-relaxation under both the categories. 
NOTE II : The term ex-servicemen will apply to the persons who are defined as ex-servicemen in the Ex-servicemen (Reemployment in Civil Services and Posts) Rules, 1979, as amended from time to time. 
NOTE III : The age concession under para 3(ii)(b)(v) and (vi) will not be admissible to Ex-Servicemen and Commissioned Officers including ECOs/SSCOs who are released on own request. 
NOTE IV : Notwithstanding the provision of age-relaxation under para 3 (ii) (b) (vii) above, a physically disabled candidate will be considered to be eligible for appointment only if he/she (after such physical examination as the Government or appointing authority, as the case may be, may prescribe) is found to satisfy the requirements of physical and medical standards for the concerned Services/posts to be allocated to the physically disabled candidates by the Government.


The date of birth accepted by the Commission is that entered in the Matriculation or Secondary School Leaving Certificate or in a certificate recognised by an Indian University as equivalent to Matriculation or in an extract from a Register of Matriculates maintained by a University, which extract must be certified by the proper authority of the University or in the Higher Secondary or an equivalent examination certificate.

These certificates are required to be submitted only at the time of applying for the Civil Services (Main) Examination. 
No other document relating to age like horoscopes, affidavits, birth extracts from Municipal Corporation, service records and the like will be accepted. 

The expression Matriculation/Secondary Examination Certificate in this part of the instruction includes the alternative certificates mentioned-above. 

NOTE 1 : Candidates should note that only the Date of Birth as recorded in the Matriculation/Secondary Examination Certificate or an equivalent certificate as on the date of submission of applications will be accepted by the Commission and no subsequent request for its change will be considered or granted. 

NOTE 2 : Candidates should also note that once a Date of Birth has been claimed by them and entered in the records of the Commission for the purpose of admission to an examination, no change will be allowed subsequently (or at any other examination of the Commission) on any grounds whatsoever. 

NOTE 3 : The candidate should exercise due care while entering their date of birth in column 3 of the Application Form for the Preliminary Examination. If on verification at any subsequent stage, any variation is found in their date of birth from the one entered in their matriculation or equivalent Examination certificate, disciplinary action will be taken against them by the Commission under the Rules. 

Minimum Educational Qualifications

The candidate must hold a degree of any of Universities incorporated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other educational institutions established by an Act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as a University Under Section-3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956, or possess an equivalent qualification.
NOTE I : Candidates who have appeared at an examination the passing of which would render them educationally qualified for the Commission’s examination but have not been informed of the results as also the candidates who intend to appear at such a qualifying examination will also be eligible for admission to the Preliminary Examination. All candidates who are declared qualified by the Commission for taking the Civil Services (Main) Examination will be required to produce proof of passing the requisite examination with their application for the Main Examination failing which such candidates will not be admitted to the Main Examination. The applications for the Main Examination will be called sometime in the month of August/September, 2013.

NOTE II : In exceptional cases the Union Public Service Commission may treat a candidate who has not any of the foregoing qualifications as a qualified candidate provided that he/she has passed examination conducted by the other Institutions, the standard of which in the opinion of the Commission justifies his/her admission to the examination. 

NOTE III : Candidates possessing professional and technical qualifications which are recognised by Government as equivalent to professional and technical degree would also be eligible for admission to the examination. 

NOTE IV : Candidates who have passed the final professional M.B.B.S. or any other Medical Examination but have not completed their internship by the time of submission of their applications for the Civil Services (Main) Examination, will be provisionally admitted to the Examination provided they submit along with their application a copy of certificate from the concerned authority of the University/ Institution that they had passed the requisite final professional medical examination. In such cases, the candidates will be required to produce at the time of their interview original Degree or a certificate from the concerned competent authority of the University/Institution that they had completed all requirements (including completion of internship) for the award of the Degree.

Number of attempts: 

Every candidate appearing at the examination who is otherwise eligible, shall be permitted four attempts at the examination. 
Provided that this restriction on the number of attempts will not apply in the case of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes candidates who are otherwise eligible. Provided further that the number of attempts permissible to candidates belonging to Other Backward Classes, who are otherwise eligible shall be seven. The relaxation will be available to the candidates who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable to such candidates. 
Provided further that a physically handicapped will get as many attempts as are available to other nonphysically handicapped candidates of his or her community, subject to the condition that a physically handicapped candidate belonging to the General Category shall be eligible for seven attempts. The relaxation will be available to the physically handicapped candidates who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable to such candidates. 

(i) An attempt at a Preliminary Examination shall be deemed to be an attempt at the Examination. 
(ii) If a candidate actually appears in any one paper in the Preliminary Examination, he/she shall be deemed to have made an attempt at the Examination. 
(iii) Notwithstanding the disqualification/cancellation of candidature, the fact of appearance of the candidate at the examination will count as an attempt. 

Restrictions on applying for the examination :

A candidate who is appointed to the Indian Administrative Service or the Indian Foreign Service on the results of an earlier examination and continues to be a member of that service will not be eligible to compete at this examination. 

UPSC Civil Services Exam

May 29, 2013 1

Every year UPSC calls application for Civil Services Examination for recruitment to the Services mentioned below:
  1. Indian Administrative Service.
  2. Indian Foreign Service.
  3. Indian Police Service
  4. Indian P & T Accounts & Finance Service, Group ‘A’.
  5. Indian Audit and Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.
  6. Indian Revenue Service (Customs and Central Excise), Group ‘A’.
  7. Indian Defence Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.
  8. Indian Revenue Service (I.T.), Group ‘A’.
  9. Indian Ordnance Factories Service, Group ‘A’ (Assistant Works Manager, Administration). 
  10. Indian Postal Service, Group ‘A’. 
  11. Indian Civil Accounts Service, Group ‘A’. 
  12. Indian Railway Traffic Service, Group ‘A’. 
  13. Indian Railway Accounts Service, Group 'A'. 
  14. Indian Railway Personnel Service, Group ‘A’. 
  15. Post of Assistant Security Commissioner in Railway Protection Force, Group ‘A’ 
  16. Indian Defence Estates Service, Group ‘A’. 
  17. Indian Information Service (Junior Grade), Group ‘A’. 
  18. Indian Trade Service, Group 'A' (Gr. III). 
  19. Indian Corporate Law Service, Group "A". 
  20. Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service, Group ‘B’ (Section Officer’s Grade). 
  21. Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Civil Service, Group 'B'. 
  22. Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Police Service, Group 'B'. 
  23. Pondicherry Civil Service, Group 'B'. 
  24. Pondicherry Police Service, Group 'B'
Every year around 1000 (almost) candidates selected after final process.

Tuesday, May 21, 2013

IAS Exam (UPSC Civil Services Exam) Pattern and Syllabus

May 21, 2013 11
Civil Services Exams conducted by Union Public Service Commission. The exam is conducted in two phases:
  1. Preliminary Test 
  2. Mains Exam including Personality Test

Preliminary Examination:

The Preliminary Examination comprising of two compulsory Papers of 200 marks each and of two hours duration each. Detailed below is the new syllabus and pattern of the Preliminary Examination, which is brought to the notice of the prospective candidates intending to appear at the Civil Services Examination (CSE) in 2011 onwards:

Paper I - (200 marks) Duration: Two hours

  • Current events of national and international importance
  • History of India and Indian National Movement
  • Indian and World Geography - Physical, Social, Economic geography of India and the World.
  • Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change - that do not require subject specialization
  • General Science.

Paper II- (200 marks) Duration: Two hours

  • Comprehension
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills;
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability
  • Decision making and problem solving
  • General mental ability• Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude etc.) (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. -Class X level)
  • English Language Comprehension skills (Class X level).
  • Questions relating to English Language Comprehension skills of Class X level (last item in the Syllabus of Paper-II) will be tested through passages from English language only without providing Hindi translation thereof in the question paper.
  • The questions will be of multiple choice, objective type. 

Mains Exam:

The written examination will consist of the following papers:
Section 1 Essay - 200 Marks
Section 2 English Comprehension & English Précis - 100 Marks (Of Matriculation/ Xth standard level)

General Studies–I - 250 Marks
(Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

General Studies –II - 250 Marks
(Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)

General Studies –III - 250 Marks
(Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)

General Studies –IV - 250 Marks
(Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)

Optional Subject – Paper 1 - 250 Marks

Optional Subject – Paper 2 - 250 Marks

Sub Total (Written test) - 1800 Marks

Personality Test - 275 Marks.

Grand Total - 2075 Marks

UPSC GS Syllabus for Preliminary Test and Mains Exam

May 21, 2013 1

Preliminary Test

  • Current events of national and international importance
  • History of India and Indian National Movement
  • Indian and World Geography - Physical, Social, Economic geography of India and the World.
  • Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change - that do not require subject specialization
  • General Science.

Mains Exam

General Studies- I:

Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society.
  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant
  • events, personalities, issues
  • The Freedom Struggle - its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different
  • parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

General Studies- II: 

Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations. 
  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure. 
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the 
  • federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein. 
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions. 
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries 
  • Parliament and State Legislatures - structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these. 
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity. 
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act. 
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various 
  • Constitutional Bodies. 
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies 
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. 
  • Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders 
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the 
  • performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the 
  • protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections. 
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, 
  • Education, Human Resources. 
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger. 
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy. 
  • India and its neighborhood- relations. 
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests 
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora. 
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

General Studies-III: 

Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management. 
  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment. 
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it. 
  • Government Budgeting. 
  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and 
  • irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers 
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing. 
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management. 
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth. 
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc. 
  • Investment models. 
  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life 
  • Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology. 
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and 
  • issues relating to intellectual property rights. 
  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment 
  • Disaster and disaster management. 
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism. 
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security. 
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention 
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with 
  • terrorism 
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

General Studies- IV: 

Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude 
  • This paper will include questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered. 
  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values. 
  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion. 
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections. 
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance. 
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world. 
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance. 
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; 
  • Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption. 
  • Case Studies on above issues.